Basics of building construction

Basics of building construction

Understanding the basics of construction tools when completing a construction project. This article describes the steps involved in building a house.

Basic steps when starting a construction project

When planning the construction of a new building, it is very necessary to have an idea of ​​the beginning and end of the construction project. The flow chart below shows the construction progress from start to finish of a construction project.

Variations may exist as each project is unique and follows a different design and construction process. In general, the basic steps of a construction project are briefly explained.

  • Planning
  • Authorization
  • Site preparation
  • Building foundations
  • Superstructure construction
  • Hallmark sheets
  • Construction warranty period.

1. Planning

Planning in building construction involves three main steps:

  • Development of a construction plan
  • Financial analysis
  • Selection of construction team

Once the site is selected for the construction project to be built, the expertise of engineers and architects is used to create the site and building construction plan. Sometimes a suitable place is chosen only after the layout of the building. The construction plan is drawn up based on the owner’s requirements and budget. Once the plan is in hand, finances and total costs are estimated. Construction details and material estimates are prepared to help derive a project cost estimate. Estimated costs include:

  • Material costs
  • Construction costs
  • Cost of labor
  • Various costs

Read more: Construction Cost Estimates Based on the estimated costs, either a tender is carried out or the project is handed over to a known contractor. The contractor and the owner must agree on the contract on the basis of which the project is implemented. The contract states the processing time and the necessary instructions and exclusions to eliminate complaints.

2. Permit and insurance under construction

Before starting construction, the owner must ensure that he has the necessary permits to begin construction. Permits and insurance are obtained from various sources in cities and states. Construction work carried out without a permit results in project delays or project demolition or heavy fines. Compulsory party insurance helps protect the owner and the contractor.

3. Site preparation

From there, the actual construction process begins. On the basis of the construction site and construction plan, the necessary excavations, leveling, backfilling for the preparation of the construction site can be carried out. Necessary excavation is being prepared for utilities, electricity, water and sewage distribution, and temporary warehouses. In most cases, the work required for the establishment of engineering networks is being prepared. This is followed by an inspection by state officials. Read more: Steps in Site Preparation for Construction Projects – Soil Report and Excavation Inspection are done at various stages for structure, building codes, utilities, HVAC, electrical work, etc. After the entire project is completed, a final inspection is done.

4. Foundation structure/substructure

Building structures are usually built on concrete foundations. Depending on the type of soil and the level of groundwater in the area, the foundation chosen may vary. If necessary, a soil test is carried out to check the bearing capacity. Shallow foundations are required for low-rise buildings. A pile foundation is used for high-rise buildings. Once the foundation is selected, the ground is dug to build the foundation. It is done based on the layout of the foundations.

The formwork is placed in the foundation grooves and the reinforcement is placed based on the detailed design of the foundation prepared in the planning phase. Reinforcement work carried out by the contractor is regularly checked by the responsible engineer. Read more: Foundation construction – depth, width, layout and excavation Concrete mixture in the required ratio is poured onto the formwork and hardens into the finished foundation.

5. Superstructure construction

The superstructure is built after the substructure is completed. In general, a frame structure is developed, which is later supplemented with masonry walls. Corresponding windows and exterior doors are located based on the building plan. Other works falling into this section are:

  • Construction of roofs or cladding
  • Installation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
  • Ensuring sufficient electrical and plumbing connections.
  • Carry out the necessary insulation work to protect against light
  • Ensuring waterproofing of walls.
  • Plastering and finishing work of walls and surfaces
  • Flooring work
  • Exterior and interior painting.

6. List of holes

After the project is completed, the contractor will gradually review all the work and create a list. Construction units or areas that were not done correctly or do not meet quality standards are listed throughout. This will be fixed later by the responsible contractor.

7. Warranty period

After the project is completed and handed over to the owner, the contractor will determine the warranty period. Within this period, all defects found on the building construction site  must be repaired and replaced by the responsible contractor. The warranty for materials and appliances is provided by the manufacturer and supplier.

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In final words    

I hope this article contains all the answers to Basics of building construction, answered in simple words, step by step. If you liked the article, check out our site for more such content.

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